Vol. 1 (67). № 2

Tradition and Novation

Romanova A.P.
Traditions and Innovations from the Perspective of Cultural Security
The object of an article is to find out the roles of traditions and innovations in the contemporary culture from the perspective of cultural security and securitization theory. The main method of the research is an analysis of the international and national scientific discourse regarding security. The papers of so called Welsh school (security studies) representatives (Booth, K.Jones R. W.)shifted the focus towards societal issues regarding the explanation of security problems. The securitization theory of Copenhagen school (Buzan B., Wæver O.) showed the role of discursive practices in threat modeling of international and national security. Cultural security approach, that is far and wide developed nowadays, considers collapse of national culture and loss of national identity to be the most important society security threat. There are three main research lines in the modern practice regarding cultural security approach: issues of preservation of culture of indigenous ethnic groups or minority; issues related to protection of national culture from alien influence; issues of national culture influence on global economy. Analyzing Russian scientific discourse on cultural security, the author has arrived at the conclusion that the discussion revolves around the second research line. Innovation issue in culture is in the center of discussion. It is due to the western researchers, securitization process in the Russian Federation, first and foremost, dealt with culture, that traditions and innovations issue comes down to two points: influence of mass culture on contemporary Russian culture and blurring of Russian’s cultural identity under the influence of globalization.

Chudomekh V.
Cultural Traditions as the Attractors and the Guidelines of Humanity Development
The purpose of the article is to disclose the essential core of the innovations, which entails the western countries entry to the modern life of Humanity. In the article the reasons of introduction of the «institute of untraditional families» in the western countries are selected and grounded and they are defined as the intended for destruction of the traditional foundations of the other civilizations countries.
It discloses the other facilities which are used for realization of the «strategy of the guided chaos» by the western countries from the end of XX age. It is supposed that it is strategic purpose is to create a «planetary empire» and predominantly to set what could be in general and if people could still be on the Earth also as the point what the Humanity should be and with which aims it must be.
According to the author’s opinion the «strategy of the guided order» can be the alternative of that “strategy”, which is principly capable to provide: a) preservation of the existent variety of the cultures and the states in the environment of Humanity (ideas and images of human life); b) the transition of the Humanity to life without confrontations, that is based on the centuries-old traditions, on the respectable, just and highly moral relations between people.

Shorkin A.D.
The Leading Innovations Stages (from Neolithic Revolution to the Bronze Age)
The subject of this article are the early stages of technology history. On the first stage of the revolution Mesolithic Homo sapiens created effective technology battue hunting, weapons and incisal composite industries, also they produced tehnelogies of the myth, gift and participation. Through the migration innovations people were able to populate the continents of the world. In the second phase of the Neolithic revolution people have discovered the basis technologies of productive economy, the domestication of animals and agriculture, which were accompanied by the chiefhouse tehnelogies, modeled ceramics and currying, spinning and weaving. These innovations, to which researchers pay little attention, would be impossible without such innovative tehnelogy of this stage such as the layering of the myths meanings and characters borrowed from their pantheons. On the third stage «of the Bronze Age,» a set of leading technology innovations is made of bronze tools, wheeled transport and the potter’s wheel. Ancient empires social tehnelogies which were prevailing during that time period included the institution of private property and slavery, craft specialization and cities as centers of bureaucracy. Management of empires, the implementation of large-scale irrigation projects and places of worship have been associated with the script innovations.

Philosophy of Communication

Zarapin O.V.
The Contexts of Philosophical Reflection Conceptualization
The problem of philosophical reflection conceptualization is reconstructed in this articleon thehistory of philosophy material. It is analyzed in threecontexts for this purpose, in which philosophical reflectiondetectsits concepts.The first context, reconstructedin the Cartesian philosophy tradition, defines the philosophical reflection conceptin relation tothe Truth.The second context, reconstructedin the Kant philosophy tradition,defines the philosophical reflection conceptin relation to theWill. The philosophical concept is directed in opposite sides. On the one hand, it serves asatheoreticaltruth for knowledge. On the other hand, it is a moral will towards human practical life. Thematicallyand methodologicallyphilosophyis dividedinto theoretical and practical one, that raises the question of its conceptualunity.It isreconstructed the problem ofcomplementarityTruthandWill inthe context ofSchelling philosophy. The articlefocuseson the factthatSchellingproposed a solution -to introduceartworkas the basis ofcomplementarityof TruthandWilllake a source ofaestheticworldview in philosophy. Analysis of F. Nietzsche’s philosophy helps to identify features and characteristics of aestheticworldview. Nietzsche’s thesis, that «Truth is themetaphor of the Will», is representativeforaestheticworldview in thephilosophy.Atendencyto build aphilosophical texton the model ofa literary work is marked as a specificfeatureof aestheticorientation ofNietzsche philosophy. The article concludesthatthe approach ofa philosophical textto the literary workactivatesa specialphilosophicalfunction of a metaphoras a mediator of TruthandWill metaphysical concepts.

Ivanova R.A.
The Structure of the Conceptual Communicative Act Framing
On the strength of social conditionality of human being existence, an individual is actually determined on the consistent being in a state of a pre-communicative state which is being permanently and spontaneously actualized in a communicative act. The primary goal of the work is to define the communication norms diapason that makes for communication accomplishment, tool set which provides communication embodiment and the indication of constant characteristics of communication or attributes as the normalizers of the communicative structure. The object of the investigation preceding to this article is the phenomenon of communication. The subject of the current research is the communication structure as the system of the elements that normalize the communication process in a conceptual sense.

Shapiro O.A.
The Semantics of Virtual Communication
The foundations for the logical simulating of the Internet informational field are offered in the article. The author takes as a basis two-level structure of the Network. The first is global level, which represents all the information in the Internet on the whole; the second is local level, in this level we take into account a few sites which the user serves only. Different levels need different semantic grounds; so, analyzing the global level we should use the possible world semantics (by Saul A. Kripke) and complete it with appropriate sense interpretations of the specific network discourse. For the local level we should use the argumentative semantics, which consists in the analysis of assumption acceptability in persuasion process. In the end of the article the author shows, how the user could commit a transfer from one level to another and repeat; in this way we can see integrity and unity of the offered model.

Philosophy of Culture

Balkind K.L.
Conditionality of Images of an Artist Reality
The goal of this study is the study of the structure of ontology and an artistic image on all levels of artistic convention, which is the distance between the real and fiction reality. It is shown as the convention arises due to the property to reflect, but in the special and poetic way. The artistic image is considered as the main means of artistic communication. The actuality of the study is dictated by strengthening the role of the author in the conventions of contemporary art. Being the principal means of artistic communication, the image is a result of the author’s level of conditionality. That’s why we pay special attention to the image existence just on this level of conditionality. Considering the mechanism of figurative art of communication in detail, one can prove that symbolic nature of art does not contradict its figurative nature. In connection with it, one can consider the structure of image similar to the structure of the sign. One can see how the emotions and feelings of meaning caused by the substantial reality, the artist transforms into images and broadcasts artistic reality throughout the audience back into the real world. In this case artistic reality acts as a kind of a buffer of exchange. Image is a synthetic conception that has substantive and formal, communicative and structural sides, which are in close cooperation. This image is self-sufficient for a particular graphic form of the semantic system with fatal poetic component. The basic concept of the artistic image, from antiquity to modern times is observed here. The position of von Schelling attracts particular attention as the most consonant to proposed understanding of the artistic image. Several examples from the history of world art are observed in the article.

Gryzhuk E.S.
Religio Licita or the Problem of Legitimation of Religious Associations in Russia (on the example of Pastafarianism)
This article examines the process of legitimation of religious associations in Russia and a number of related issues. In particular, the absence of constituent factors of religion and as a consequence the lack of established criteria for distinguishing a religious organisation from a non-religios one. Here we examine the main features of a religious association (in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation) and reveal the main approaches to the definition of religion. We also study the necessity of the state religious examination for registration of a local religious organization. The examination is carried out on the request of the Department of Justice of Russian Federation and its territorial bodies. One of the tasks of this examination is to decide if given organization is a religious one. The lack of an official list of requirements that must match the concept of «religion» entails difficulties in conducting the state religious expertise. Since the absence of an official document governing wheather to consider an organisation to be a religious one, the decision is usually based on the subjective views of the members of the expert council. So we conclude that the necessary improvement of the procedure of state religious expertise is required.

Kuzmenko N. S.
The Valuative Model of Jihad on the Example of the Community «The Caucasus Emirate»
The main content of this article is valuative analysis of jihad as a social practice. Considerable attention is paid to the interpretation of this phenomenon in various stages of the development of the Muslim society. The features of the concept of «jihad» are analyzed in the traditional Muslim sense and the right-wing Muslim community is represented in the research. The purpose of research is an analysis of the concept of holy war and the identification of its specificity in activities of «The Caucasus Emirate» community. Jihad is the center which organizes the interpretive process in the community.
The hybridity based on the received as the basic methodology of valuative analysis was identified as the valuative of terroristic community, which looks like a valuative of Islam and which is centered on Islamic values, but in fact it hides a valuative, which is centered on the ideology of terrorism. The article substantiates that in such societies the sense of jihad and «jihad of the sword» is perverted, absolutized and promoted as the only one possible option.

Makuha G. V.
Basic Philosophical Discourses About the Problem of Existence of Man
The article presents the main distinctive features (criteria) of the six philosophical discourses (cosmocentrism, theocentrism, naturecentrism, rodotsentrizm, sociocentrism, anthropocentrism), which were formed in the history of philosophy, and which in their own way decide the problem of human existence. The main principles of human existence are: in cosmocentrism — spiritual and moral self-improvement, the development of the microcosm of man to the level of spiritual substance of the cosmos; in theocentrism – the attainment by man of God’s mercy and grace; in naturecentrism — cognition of laws of nature and their use for the benefit of mankind; in rodotsentrism — implementation of universal moral values, culture-creating activity; in sociocentrism — transformation of social relations according to the principles of social justice and social protection, in anthropocentrism – man’s creative activity in the subjective creation of himself.

Sklipis E.V.
Manifestations of Archaic Mythological Notions of Slavic Folklore
The author of this article aimed to examine, identify and justify the origin of the roots and the historical stability of such archaic notions of the ancient Slavs as totemism, fetishism, the worship of ancestors and nature, agricultural cult that influenced the of formation of national cultural and ethnic mentality, moral of the moral system of values, aesthetic and ethical views unique to the Slavic ethnic group.
The author tries to visualize the example to show all the above features and locations of the Slave the way its origins taking as an tales example all the familiar from early childhood. Few people know that many of them have their origins in antiquity, in the Paleolithic and carry information about the important moments of peoples lives of that time. Slavic folklore, based on myths, shows the time of submission of the cosmogony, the structure of the world, human’s place in the world, life and death. Tales educate and form the primary view of the world of a child, thus they affect on the mind and modern man. Knowing what is the mythological element of fairy tales, you can easily decipher the text, not only Slavic fairy tales, but tales of other people and to understand what is the true meaning encoded in their knowledge. In our time mythological thinking and the archaic representations have not disappeared, and organically fit into the consciousness and behavior of man and harmoniously coexist with other, developed religions, sometimes forming very bizarre system of dual faith, superstition and omens. Mythological thinking is the oldest preserved and versatile way of thinking, it is not contrary to the type of modern consciousness and the level of knowledge and modern myths continue to accompany the life of modern man in all spheres of life.

Temnenko G.M.
On the Problem of the Aesthetic Experience of the Tragic
The aesthetic perception, as it has long been explained, is associated with the experience of a phenomenon as the aesthetic value, and the aesthetic taste is based on the ability to perceive various phenomena based on the feeling of pleasure or displeasure differentially. However, the experience of the tragic is problematic in this regard, as the tragic conflict is usually disharmonious, it results in a disaster, which is perceived as an irreparable loss, a source of bitter experiences. How can a tragic experience bring aesthetic pleasure?
Aristotle linked this feeling to catharsis — the purification of human passions. However, the brevity and uncertainty of his remarks gave rise to many interpretations. In addition, we can safely say that the tragic work does not always produce exactly catharsis; a lot depends on the recipient’s state of mind. The ability to experience the same aesthetic pleasure can be maintained even when the catharsis does not occur.
Soviet aesthetic theory traditions linked the aesthetic experience of the tragic with the obligatory presence of an optimistic origin.
It was so due to ritual roots of the tragedy, its origin from ceremonies in honor of the dying and reviving god ending the celebration of the resurrection. However, the tragic heroes are people whose death is irreversible. A positive factor is not their immortality, but their devotion to a positive value that does not lose its significance even when dying.
Harmony, which may be present in the artistic expression of the tragic origin, is, according to Heraclitus, a «hidden harmony», a complex clash of contradictory principles, generating unstable dynamic balance and delight only in the case of precise and expressive embodiment.

Fakhrutdinova A.
Modern Russian Theatre in the Struggle for Spiritual Leadership: Trends and Conflict
The article considers tendencies of development of modern Russian theatre in the context of the deployment of internal and external contradictions. As internal contradictions examines the confrontation of moral and aesthetically oriented, traditional, and interpretive theatre. In the analysis of collisions data used, the conclusions obtained in the framework of the hermeneutics and methodology of historical research. The external conflict became more acute in the context of the struggle for spiritual leadership, conflict represented the interaction between the theatre and the Church as a social institutions. As a social and ideological bases of this opposition are considered «competition» in the space of values. Analyze the following aspects of conflict, as a contradiction of the values of stability and novelty, the ratio of global and national tendencies of cultural development, discussions about the possible limits of interpretation of the classics, acting as such, moral relativism and agnosticism in post-dramatic theatre.

Logic and Metodology of Science

Gabriyelyan O. A., Mun G.A., Panchenko S.V., Suleimenov I.E.
Dialectics of Information
Information as a basic category of objective dialectics does not and can not have a definition in the sense of «school definitions»; it should be determined in the same manner as the rest of the dialectical categories — by the opposition. The information should be regarded as a category of objective dialectics, pair category of matter. It is obvious that the concept of matter and information are in a dialectical complementarity. This connection is much more complex than in the dialectical opposite categories and concepts. An attempt to link the definition of information given by on the basis of objective dialectics with the practical needs is made. It is shown that instead of clarifying the concepts of «valuable information», «macroinformation» etc. it is advisable to use the category of alienated information. The basis for the formal description of the categories of this kind in the language of dialectical logic quantifiers is presented.

Gerasimova I. A.
Reasoning from Sigh and their Role in Science
The paper discusses three interrelated groups of problems. The first group of issues concerns cognitive features of the historical period of formation of logical thinking. The second group of issues — the role of reasoning from the basis in the establishment of the first logic programs inductive and deductive methodology. The third group of questions will be posed about the modern projective activity and genetically-constructive method. It is emphasized that the ability to see the whole, the ability to design a whole, the ability to be harmoniously integrated into a natural whole increase the role of intuitive component of the knowledge andimply developed aesthetic sense of the whole. The possibility of informal logic is seen by the author in the development of methods of operating with signs as one of the ways of discovering a whole through its manifestations.

Zhaldak N.N.
The Inference from the Attributive Premises without Content of the Concept Abstracting
The article is aimed at optimization of knowledge representation for the preparatory training in control over inferences by means of the existential linear – tabular diagrams (ELTG) which are most effective for this purpose. The author offers such diagrammatic methods that allow to draw conclusions from attributive judgments without abstracting from the contents of the concepts and so to give an understanding of the reasoning logical forms and of these diagrams. To highlight the logical form of reasoning, it is proposed to replace the descriptive terms to the images discussed features (figures – features), but not symbols. The sentence with such recording directly expresses a judgment which is either true or false in relation to its universe. Accordingly, ELTD are converted into figural existential linear tabular diagrams (FELTD) which are equivalent to ELTD by their ability to produce inferences. Nonemptiness of sets is denoted on the FELTD by figures – items which represent elements of the denotation of discussed concepts, the emptiness of the sets denoted by empty space (lack of image figure – object) and others. The method of object models even more clearly not abstracts from the content of the concepts. According to it, the models that correspond to premises contain only qualitatively similar images of the object or contain ranks of objects (each rank is one model of the universe).

Nikolko V.N.
On Logical Status of Content Inferences
The content inference is defined as stable habit to sound what we sense. It is grounded that so defined content inference is a connecting link between direct and indirect knowledge and serves as a source for true propositions from sense material. It is demonstrated that this resolve the problem of the “first true propositions” taken not from another true propositions. It is also stressed that accepting the content inference is followed by introducing the perception as a logical form of knowledge. The judgement is interpreted as the most important form of indirect knowledge and is defined as stable habit to call the relation between the elements of sense experience by means of sentences of internal and, then, oral (propositions) or written speech.

Safonova N.V.
To Distngushing Key Units of Natural Mathematical Languages
Features of the language of mathematics are considered. It should be noted that the key unit of natural language (concept) and the language of mathematics (number) have a different nature.
Three ways of entering of the number (logicism, formalism, constructivism) are analyzed in order to identify the specific properties of the key language units of mathematics. Fundamental specific property is not its connection with empirical evidence, and rules of transformation or rules of the game. From this point of view, the nature of mathematical objects and figuring denotate of the number in order to determine his are not matter that much.

Titov A. V.
The Problem of the Development of Methodology of Mathematical modeling of Problems of Forecasting and Managing the Development of Complex Systems
In the article the problem of development of methodology of mathematical support of the situational approach to the development of systems support management decision making in the management and forecasting of complex objects is considered. The article provides a description of the situational approach to managerial decision making in the management of objects and processes of different nature. It analyzes the problems that arise in the mathematical modeling of technology adoption decisions in the management and forecasting of development of objects and processes of great complexity. It describes several approaches to the modeling of complicated objects and processes. Is it based on the analysis of the main stages of the decision process which identifies the discrepancies in the formal description of the quality management process for objects of different nature. On this basis the conclusion about the necessity of forming unified theoretical framework for formal modeling of objects and processes of different nature as a hierarchy of description languages is made. The analysis of interrelations of the main accepted types of languages describe the situation of governance, which concludes that the language of the theory of lattices and the theory of categories can be seen as generalizing the basic classification of languages formal language form.

Shkorubskaya E.G.
The Problem Area of Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems
The article is devoted to the Gödel’s incompleteness theorems. The purpose of the article is to give the survey of problem area that involved in the results obtained by Gödel about incompleteness of elementary arithmetic and systems in which it can be expressible. Much attention is given to the functional and deductive aspects of the concept of completeness of a formal system, in a general sense and in the sense of Gödel. It is spoken in detail about the similarities and differences of Gödel’s proposition with the liar paradox. Necessity for using the liar paradox for proving incompleteness of the formal system is putted into the question. The article gives an analysis of interpretations of logical-mathematical and philosophical legacy of Gödel. It draws our attention to the phenomenon of recurrent interest to the works of Gödel in an academic community, presented in the form of the «three waves». The possible sources of a permanent returning to the incompleteness theorems results are discussed. Attempts are made to analyze the problem of superfluous and unreasonable interpretations and explications of incompleteness theorems in the fields of knowledge, not directly related to mathematical logic and the logic at all. The assumption that the consequences of these theorems for the philosophy and methodology of science is strictly limited is putted forward.

About the authors