Vol.1 (67), № 1

Traditions and Novations

Antipov G. A.
Traditions, Innovation and Social Evolution
The main idea of the article is to justify the objective to develop a general theory of social evolution. The existing theoretical models, which can to some extent be qualified for such status, definitely do not meet the criteria of scientific character. The Marx’ theory of formations transmits uncritically the model of the evolution of the Earth, elaborated by Charles Lyell, onto the social history; and the so-called «civilizational approach» is alien to the idea of evolution in principle. The author believes that the theory of social evolution should be developed on the basis of the main aspects of Darwinism. However, in biology Darwinism was united with the theory of the biological mechanisms of heredity, and so similarly the social analysis has to focus on the study of the mechanisms of social heredity. The article justifies this thesis in the context of the analysis of the phenomenon of tradition.

Vakkasova M.V.
Problems of Cultural Safety in the Research of Parisian School
This article is concerned with the change of the notion of cultural safety in the framework of Paris School. Safety is one of the basic human needs, that is why with the processes of globalization it is taken into account as the complication of the situation with the Stranger makes it necessary to define the term «cultural safety». The end of the Cold War stimulated the transnational processes that, according to French political scientist Didier Bigo, created the atmosphere of fear and instability, and the safety measures, which were considered temporary and exceptional, started to be adopted constantly. This standpoint made scholars to review the notion of cultural safety and boosted the appearance of the whole new trend within the framework of critical research. The aim of this article is to analyse the specific character of basic trends in research of the notions «safety» and «cultural safety» in the works of the representatives of Parisian Scientific School. The study identified the main approaches to the definition of «cultural security» and his research.

Lipkin A. I.
The Vision of Social and Cultural Innovation and Risks in a Multicultural Model
A multi-layer model of culture is proposed. There are distinguished layers of folk, national, civilizational, mass, global culture. They interact with each other and with socio-political sectors. In each layer of culture, you can select the appropriate type of «cultural core» and joining together the community around it. There are basic meanings and ideals (which can degenerate into collective ideology) in the civilizational cultural core, national history and literature (with definite types of personalities and relationships) in the national cultural core, collective myth, folklore and features of everyday life in the folk cultural core. We consider the phenomenon of different shows as the main feature of mass culture. You should add a global culture where there is interaction between different civilizations. In addition two types of politico-economic systems with two principles are introduces. The principles are: the «contractual» involving the rights of both parties and «command based » (“mandatory”), where the rights has only one side.
Another important group of concepts associated with the distinction of collectivist and three individualized types of communities and individuals:individually-pragmatic; individually-idealistic; communitarian. Based on this paradigm we examine risks of: multiculturalism in the globalization process; nationalism in nation-building; democratization in «command based» politico-economic systems.

Shorkin A.D.
To the History of the Humanity Technelogy Availability (the Problem of Technique and Morality Correlation)
The article discusses the problem of correlation between the technical progress of mankind on the background of the development of social structures and humanist purposes. A prejudice about stagnation or even regression of morality in the course of history, which would (here the author follows K. Lorenz) lead to the self-destruction of mankind is criticized. Each of the cultural and historical development stages is characterized by specific complex (group) of leading innovations, which includes the technical development, social changes and humanist innovations. These changes are not entirely consistent and synchronized but leading innovations at make up the system with a strong feedback at any stage. The neologism technelogiya with ancient connotations τεχνη is entered for their joint description. Innovations of various kinds complement each other with the necessity providing a certain level of growth for technelogy equipment of humanity, and gross world product. The technelogy innovations of earliest stages of archaeological cultures are briefly described. The stone technology industry launched by Homo habilis is associated with a sluggish humanitarian trend of anthropophagy restrictions that is leading to the Neanderthals burial symbolism.
This work is the first one in a series of articles that will contain a short description of the cultural and historic steps leading to their technelogy innovations on the whole world history race, from the spread of Homo sapiens to the present day.

 Philosophy of Communication

Grineva M.
Media Man: Virtual Iintermedia of an Eternal Life
The article investigates the transformation of the relationship of «I» and «Other» in the conditions of implementation of the «eternal life» in the media. Mediasphere gives an ability to run out from risks connected with the death of a body. This leads to the modern man design the idea of permanent life. A hypothesis is proposed that the absence of an attribute finiteness deprives a person of the meaning of life and intersubjective experience. This is the reason of the formation of a new phenomenon of «media man». Research identifies the relevance of idea eternal life to a sense of human being. It also explains the rationale of the required value of a person’s death in the construction of his own life.

Karelin V.M.
Dissensus – A Factor of Effective Communication
The article deals with the phenomenon of dissensus and its role in social communications. The constructive role of dissensus in the process of communication is proved. First of all it needs to be said that dissensus is not a mere disagreement between communicants or a reason for any communicative conflicts either. Representation of information not as quasi-physical object (as it traditionally is often being represented), but as an event in the context of double contingency, enables the non-evaluative development of the meaning of dissensus in the performative dimension. Thus, communication is not a thing that exist through propositional description, but it is a thing that happens. That’s the very different mode of existence, which lies aside from well-determined prognosis and strict management as well. That conception of dissensus is about the principal divergence of languages of discussions. That idea is fundamentally significant for education and especially for the future tendencies of modern university.

Ryskeldyieva L.T.
The Objectives of Communicative Textology
The article raises the question of the tasks of philosophical research of text and communication. Textual and symbolic nature of reality nowadays is clearly shown by terms of mass communication and virtual reality. This fact automatically makes interdisciplinary communication and textual studies relevant. Active role of linguistics in the aggregate of such research is noted. Specifics of philosophical research in this area are defined by the concept of ‘‘sense’’ (meaning). The distinction between the terms “communicative” and ‘social” is shown. The most important researches in philosophy of text (in Russia) are mentioned. In accordance with these issues the problems of philosophical textоlogy are formulated: communicative (definition of the differences between spoken and written text, which are essential to the meaning (or sense), solution of issues concerning adequate interpretation and correct reconstruction of the meaning (or sense)), teleological (defining objectives of textual activity in general); formal (analysis of relevance between meaning of the text and its formatting and genre features).

Sokolova A.B.
Issues of Responsibility in Russian Cosmism Philosophy
Russian cosmism philosophy defines responsibility as harmonic combination of need for the preservation of memory of the past at the present moment and the definition of the ideals of the future. For some cosmists, like Fedorov, Sukhovo-Kobylin, Kholodny, responsibility applies to socio-political category. For some other cosmists, like Solovyov, Florensky, Berdyaev and Roerichs, it applies to the moral and ethical category. Third group of cosmists, like Tsiolkovsky, Vernadsky and Chizhevsky, apply it to scientific and technical category. Absolutely all comsist philosophers believe that responsibility is a trait of a human soul which could unite all the humanity and estabilish warm, almost congenerous bond between all nations.
To be responsible, by Plato, means to be able to respond with conscience. To be responsible, by Vernadsky, means to be a human being. To be responsible, by Florensky, means to follow spiritual principles of reason and conscience. For Solovyov, responsibility is consequence of love to God and to people. Kholodny treated responsibility as a result of cosmic evolution: there’s a will of cosmos, and concentrated will of human being appears through his responsibility.
For most cosmists it was axiomatic, the idea that the sence of responsibility starts at the same place where conscience is being born — at the human heart. Therefore, responsibility, among other matters, can be applied to the sensual area. Appropriately, we assume that responsibility is a personal trait which means tendency for introspection and self-improvement. In other words, responsibility is an ability of a human being to organize and direct his actions to general prosperity according to the interests of society and the ability to foresee consequences of his actions.

Shapiro O.A.
The Web Communication Conflicts and Their Overcoming
The article is dedicated to the problem of setting conflicts, which arise on the communication oriented sites in the Internet. The author considers virtual conflicts as a specific brand of modern virtual communication, especially in a space of social networks. So, the adequate answer to it would be creating the new brand – “accordance”; ad it is necessary to find an effective argumentative strategy for its promotion. Formulating the strategy is possible only on the strong theoretical grounds. The author proposes to use the cognitive theory of the conflict which is worked out by the Ukrainian philosopher and logician A.T. Ishmuratov, especially his ideas concerning of conflict dynamics. Moreover, we should take into account the most important features of virtual communication: anonymity, irresponsibility, ability to pollute, increased emotionality. And the third number in the theoretical grounds is choice of argumentative approach; the author offers to synthesize a logical approach and the pragmatic one.

Political Science. Political Philosophy

Pershin Yu. Yu.
«Hybrid War» as an Intellectual Provocation
The notion of “hybrid war / threat” is used now quite frequently, but different authors use it in different senses and meanings. We consider this concept to be unstable, not amenable to detailed classification, but it is theoretically attractive because it can include a large number of meanings. With significant regulation in the military thought in the USA, such abstract concept is a kind of “lifeline” for authors who wish to avoid the detailed classification. We should say that the concept of “hybrid war / threat” is also one more “intellectual virus” (term of Gadi Eizenkot, Chief of General Staff of the Israel Defense Forces), elaborated on the basis of the military experience of the Second Lebanon war (Israel – Hezbollah war of 2006). This statement can also be confirmed by the curious use of this concept by some authors, who are far from a military theoretical thought. We think it is necessary to draw our attention to the authors whose theoretical work is no less fundamental than the American ones, and who does not use misleading terms like notorious “hybrid war”. We also think that all possible combinations of the all modern methods of warfare and confrontation could be described without use of such a new-fashioned and vague term of “hybrid war”.

Porokhovskaya T.I.
The Moral Rhetoric in Political Discourse
The objective of the work is to systematize and critically reflect on the reasons and motives of politicians who appeal to the moral rhetoric, to reveal the functions of moral language in public policy. To this end, we consider the relationship of morality and politics in Plato and Aristotle, the basic stages of formation of representations about the specifics of polictical (more detailed — N. Machiavelli and K.Shmitt), the place and role of moral rhetoric in political discourse. The article shows that the moral values can be political values but they also can be ignored by politicians. However, the moral rhetoric in public policy is always used. This is due to the characteristics of the political (also pertaining to political science), and the moral language, and due to the fact that the moral rhetoric is often used in politics instrumentally. The appeal to morality strengthens politics, making it more attractive and more effective, so the moral rhetoric is used in politics as a means for the realization of political goals: the moral elevation of the group and its goals, the moral humiliation of the group of political opponent and for hiding the true goals and intentions.

Stolyarov A.V.
Concept of Information Violence and European Ideology World Tolerance
In the information society age, there’s a clear demand in a certain approach towards the limits of permissible in the area of communication and information exchange. Тhe concept of information violence is оne of such approaches. Within the libertarian views, the concept allows to mark clearly, where the limits must be placed; however, even in case we don’t share the libertatian views and consider violence to be acceptable in certain situations, the notion of information violence at least lets us to be aware of possible social tension sources. Besides that, the information violence concept demonstrates certain explanation power in areas not directly related to the information society. In particular, it is known that information violence is inavoidable in open public places where each individual transmits at least the information about his/her look, and everyone being in the same place have to accept this information. Effect of such violence is moderated by everyone obeing certain culturally-imposed (but in general not formalized) rules that match what all the others expect; this match is secured by the fact all the individuals belong to the same cultural context. If, however, someone, who represents another cultural context, does not follow the rules the others expect, this case of public information violence becomes more serious– actually, to the degree where it can be no longer ignored. From this point of view, the demand of tolerant behaviour is effectively a demand to quietly accept violence; not only this has nothing to do with individual liberty, but it directly contradicts the very notion of individual liberty.

 Logic and Metodology of Science

Suleimenov I.E., Gabriyelyan O. A., Suleimenovа K.I.
The Information Aspects of Complex Systems Evolution
The mechanism of complex systems evolution, which allows to overcome the difficulties of contemporary evolution theories, is presented from the standpoint information theory. It is shown that for systems of any nature there are two evolution stages: the emergence of information object due to the changes of links’ structure without any changes in elements themselves, then information object starts to influence on whole system evolution by selection of elements, which properties are in good correspondence with information object. Proposed mechanism allows us to consider the complex system as an information system that has distributed memory and various control programs.
Any society which has passed a certain threshold of complexity, must also acquire the properties, corresponding to the use and processing of information of a higher level than the one that is related to the independent functioning of the individual elements. As a neural network, society acquires the allocated memory, which is only indirectly related to the memory of individuals. But that’s not all, the whole system (the system and not its individual elements, such as individuals) may use this information. It is more correct to say that the behavior of the system as a whole depends not only on the properties of individual elements but also on the characteristics of the “macro-regulator”.

Zhaldak N.N.
Categories of Social and Humanitarian Studies Methodology
The article draws attention to the need for a systematic knowledge of the philosophical categories that perform methodological function in social and humanitarian studies. The main content of the article is clarification of the definitions of categories of explanation of human activity, so that they can effectively carry out this function.
The author’s method of linear-tabular diagrams and graphs was used for visual logical and semantic analysis to define these categories. Corrections and additions are made in the diagrams and graph schemes, which give the image of the structure of the social forces of the subject, and image of the subject himself as an open system (its forces and their carriers are expended in production at its «exit» and are purchased for consumption on its «input»), and an image of how joining together subjects mutually complement each other such forces which they are out of this association cannot be used. It is proving that it is unacceptable to be confused forces and carriers of these forces. It is recognized that the minimization of costs of achieving each particular result and maximization of the overall result due to the costs (use) of all resources and forces of the subject is carried out simultaneously, but is refuted due to the possibility of minimizing overall costs to achieve maximum of overall results. With the use of social relation scheme it is shown importance of accounting what the subject according to interest chooses the least expensive way to meet the needs depending on that for which he has encouraged.

Manuylov V.T
Methodological Principles of «German Constructivism»
Characteristic for «German constructivism» or Erlangen school methods and means of a substantiation of mathematical knowledge are considered: 1) tools of reconstruction of ordinary language with the purpose of maintenance of its clearness and valid for the scientific usage; 2) methods of a substantiation of the mathematical theory by means of «calculations» (Kalkül); 3) «Lorenzenian dialogues» as tools of construction and substantiation of scientific knowledge in «operative logic and mathematics». We construct a formal language of logic Я1, ascertain grounds of distinction of » definable relative to truth», «definable relative to proof» and «definable relative to dialogue» statements. The epistemological foundations of distinction of «strict», «effective» and «classical» dialogues are come to light at a substantiation of scientific knowledge in «German constructivism».

Nikolko V.N.
On a Logic Functions Set (Funcfors)
The set of functions called funcfors that significantly expands the boundaries of the currently known logic functions is presented. The discussion of such functions at the level if there essence is suggested for the first time. The funcfor functional connections classes called N-funсfors among which there are formulas accepted in the Aristotele’s syllogistics are introduced into the set of logical functions. The principle for syllogistic implication is formulated. The following definition for funcfors is given: the elements of the set of binary functions f (x1,x2,…,xn) which arguments take value 0 or 1 and which are determined by the rule of correspondence f are called funcfors. This set includes logic algebra functions. The subset of N-funcfors is distinguished. The following theorem is proved: all the formulas accepted in Arictotle’s syllogistics as correct are N-funcfors in the case of funcfor constructing of the formal systems.

Semerey A.V.
To the Question about the Key Types of Thinking
The article considers the types of thinking. The author investigates the nature of the key types of thinking and analyzes the concepts of the correlation between language and thought. The purpose of the publication is to research the problem of language and thought in the history of philosophy.
The difficulty of the problem of the interrelationship between language and thought is caused by the complexity and structure of their nature. And there comes the following complex question: what is a thought, thinking? Is it the same thing as speech, a word we use in everyday life, or anything which is different from them?
Therefore, we can talk about a variety of approaches to the problem of the correlation between thought and language. However, a position is allocated in the debate about the nature of thinking in which the substrate is the inner speech – there centration. Therefore, the author suggests to follow the position of the extended interpretation of thinking, in which thinking – is willful control of material conscience.

Titov A.V.
GeneralizedNon-Standard AnalysisandStudy of the Formsof LogicalCalculationon the Basis ofAssessment ofValueStructures
This paper considers the possibility of studying the dynamics of development of different types of logical calculi on the basis of the assessment study, analyze the connection of this approach with the thesis about internal self-development concepts put forward by Hegel in “Science of logic” and the possibility of its application to the development of mathematics and mathematical logic. The examples allow to show that in the development of mathematics spontaneously this method is already being used as the dialectics of external reflection.
An approach based on assessment study allows us to consider a unified position options for the logical calculus as a dialectical process in which the emergence of different variants of logical calculus is seen as the result of the division of algebraic structures whose elements are the values ​​of the logical calculus formulas estimates. At the same time the focus is as the relation between the form of a logical calculus type of pricing structure as well as equivalence relation determining the measure on the evaluation of the structure and the relationship between the different languages ​​of the theory of structures.

Shiyan A.A.
Phenomenological Justification of Logic
The article investigates the problem of justifying the logic in Husserl’s phenomenology. It is accentuated, by means of comparative analysis of the ideas expressed in the works of Husserl «Logical Investigations» and «Experience and judgment», the specifics of the evolution of the phenomenological approach to the subject of logic. It is also emphasizes that the elaboration of phenomenological problematics on judgment, based on the perception as on the experience for pre-reality to the object contains a number of assumptions being not tracked by Husserl. Among them, the author identifies and analyzes the premise that objectivity of mind is produced by special acts of categorical contemplation unconsciously, making it impossible to justify referring to the experience. The author concludes that Husserl’s phenomenological analysis of perception as a basis for judgment is one of the variant of how to describe the experience of perception, which is placed in the context of the specific task of justifying the logic. At the same time it is stressed that despite the problems of perception occupy important place in in the Husserl’s phenomenology, his approach to the description of the experience of perception is largely determined by general philosophical goals and attitudes which are accepted at the moment and which are not always perceived by him/

About the Authors